عنوان مقاله [English]
Changes the Sea surface temperature and lake can have significant impacts on marine ecosystems and the lives of human societies on the edges of these seas. By trend analyzing the temperature of sea surface temperatures, we can examine the extent of its impact on global climate change. Given the fact that the Caspian Sea is known as the world's largest closed water body, these changes in surface water temperatures can cause great damage to the sensitive and fragile ecosystem of this sea. The purpose of the present research is to analyze the trend of sea surface temperature in the Caspian Sea in order to investigate the effect of this sea on global climate change in order to apply it in management plans to maintain the balance of this valuable water ecosystem. This research was performed using non-parametric statistical methods on 720 cells using network data with a spatial resolution of 0.25 * 0.25 * arcs in a 29-year statistical period. The results of the study showed that the monthly, seasonal and annual monthly water temperature of the Caspian Sea has a significant upward trend, which requires the attention of planners and decision makers in the margins of this sea to maintain ecosystem balance. Considering that the Caspian Sea is a closed system, any appreciable increase in surface water temperature can have adverse effects on aquatic life, water resources, evaporation from the sea level and, consequently, on the level and status of pollution of the sea.
Abigail, M.G., Mee, L.D., Raitsos, D.E., Shapiro, GI.,(2008), Non-linearity’s, regime shifts and recovery: The recent influence of climate on Black Sea chlorophyll, Journal of Marine Systems, pp. 649-658.
Ackleson, S., Balch, W.M., Holligan, P.M., (1988), White waters of the Gulf Maine, Journal of Oceanography,pp.18-22.
Belkin,i.,(2016),Sea surface temperature trends in large marine ecosystems, UNESCO and UNEP, United National Environment Programme, Nairobi,pp.101-109.
Bograd Steven J., Mendelssohn, R., Schwing, F., Miller, A.J.,(2004), Spatial Heterogeneity of Sea Surface Temperature Trends in the Gulf of Alaska, Atmosphere-ocean journal,pp.241–247.
Chan, KL.,(2006), Climate issues in Hong Kong: Mitigation and Adaptation. Bachelor of Engineering degree in Civil and Environmental Engineering at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 4p.
Fox, M.F., Kester, D.R., Yoder, J.A.,(2005), Spatial and temporal distributions of surface temperature and chlorophyll in the Gulf of Maine during 1998 using Sea Waifs and AVHRR imagery, Marine Chemistry,pp.104-123.
Gasımov, E., (1999), Long-term investigation of SST regime variability and its relationship with phytoplankton in the Caspian Sea using remotely sensed AVHRR and SeaWiFS data, Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences,pp.10-22.
Ginzburg, A.I., Kostianoy, A.G., Krivosheya, V.G., Nezlin, N.P., Soloviev, D.M., Stanichny, S.V. Yakubenko, V.G.,(2002), Anticyclonic eddies in the northwestern Black Sea, Journal of Marine Systems,pp.91-106.
Hood, R., Abbot, M.R., Huyer, A. Korso, P.M., (1990), Surface patterns in temperature, flow, phytoplankton biomass, and species composition in the coastal transition zone off northern California, Journal of Geophysical Research,pp.18081-18098.
Jamshidi, S., Abu Bakar, Md., Noordin, M.,(2017), Temperature, Salinity and Density Measurements in the Coastal Waters of the Rudsar, South Caspian Sea, Journal of the Persian Gulf, (Marine Science), PP.27-35.
Kavak, M.,(2012), Long-Term Investigation of SST Regime Variability and Its Relationship with Phytoplankton in the Caspian Sea Using Remotely Sensed AVHRR and SeaWiFS Data, Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences,pp.709-717.
Kavak, M.T., Karadoğan, S.,(2012), The Relationship Between Sea Surface Temperature and chlorophyll concentration in the Black Sea using remote sensing techniques, Journal of Environmental Biology, pp. 493-498.
Kendall, M.G.,(1970), Rank Correlation Methods, 2nd Ed., Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Dept. of Psychology,pp.1-68.
Khajavi,E.,Behzadi,J.,Nezami,T.,Ghodrati,A.,Dadashi,A.,(2012), Modeling ARIMA of air temperature of the southern Caspian Sea coasts, International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, pp. 1279-1287.
Khoshakhlagh, F., Shakouri Katigari, A., Hadinejad Saboori, SH.,(2016), Trend of the Caspian Sea surface temperature changes, Natural Environment Change, pp. 57- 66.
Kosarev, A. N.E. Yablonskaya,.A,(1994), the Caspian sea, SPB Academic Publishing, the Hague, the Netherlands.
Mann, H.B.,(1945), Nonparametric tests against the trend, Journal of Econometrics, pp. 245-259.
Miles, T.N., He, R.,(2010), Temporal and spatial variability of Chl-a and SST on the South Atlantic Bight: Revisiting with cloud-free reconstructions of MODIS satellite imagery, Continent Shelf Research, p.1951-1965.
Molavi-Arabshahi,.M,.Arpeb, K., Leroyc, S.A.G.,(2015), Precipitation and temperature of the southwest Caspian Sea region during the last 55 years: their trends and teleconnections with large-scale atmospheric phenomena, International Journal of climatology,pp.2156-2172.
Nykjaer, L., Van Camp, L.,(1989), Remote Sensing of the Northwest African upwelling area. Analysis and interpretation of simultaneous pairs of GAC derived sea surface temperature and CZCS derived chlorophyll-like pigment concentration images, Final report, Unimar Sciences ApS., In Ed ISP DK. Institute for Remote Sensing Applications JRC annual report.
Panin, G., (2007), Caspian Sea level fluctuations as a consequence of regional climatic change. In: Lozán, J. L., H. Grassl, P.Hupfer, L. Menzel & C.-D. Schönwiese. Global Change: Enough water for all Wissenschaftliche Auswertungen, Hamburg, 384 p.
Quartly, D., Srokosz, M. A.,(2002), SST observations of the Agulhas and East Madagascar retroflections by the TRMM Microwave Imager, Phys. Oceanogr,p.1585–1592.
Reynolds, R., Smith, T., Liu, C., Chelton, D., Casey, K., Schlax, M., (2007), Daily high-resolution blended analyses for sea surface temperature, Journal of Climatology, pp. 5473–5496
Robinson, C., LeB. Williams, P.J.,(1993), Temperature and Antarctic Plankton community respiration, Journal of Plankton Research, pp. 1035-1051.
Smith, T. M., Reynolds, R. W.,(2003), Extended reconstruction of global sea surface temperatures based on COADS data (1854–1997), Journal of Climatology, pp. 1495–1510.
Swenson, S., Wahr, J.,(2007), Multi-sensor analysis of water storage variations of the Caspian Sea, Geophysical research letters, vol 34.
Takafumi, A.,(2008), Long-term Trends of SST in the Seas adjacent to Japan, CLIMAR-III conference, May 6th – 9th, 2008, Gdynia, Poland.
Wang, J., Qi, Y., Jones, I.S.F.,(2006), An analysis of the characteristics of chlorophyll in the Sulu Sea, Journal of Marine Systems, pp. 111-119.
Yasunaka, A.S., Hanawa, K.,(2011), Intercomparison of historical sea surface temperature datasets, Journal of Climatology,pp.1056-1073.
Yu, B., Boer, G.J.,(2006), The variance of sea surface temperature and rejected changes with global warming. Journal of Climatology, pp.801–821.